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14 November 2019 | Open Access
13 November 2019 | Open Access
Journal of Materials Science (2020)
Thermal detectors, such as bolometric, pyroelectric and thermoelectric devices, are uniquely capable of sensing incident radiation for any electromagnetic frequency; however, the response times of practical devices are typically on the millisecond scale1,2,3,4,5,6,7. By integrating a plasmonic metasurface with an aluminium nitride pyroelectric thin film, we demonstrate spectrally selective, room-temperature pyroelectric detectors from 660–2,000 nm with an instrument-limited 1.7 ns full width at half maximum and 700 ps rise time. Heat generated from light absorption diffuses through the subwavelength absorber into the pyroelectric film producing responsivities up to 0.18 V W−1 due to the temperature-dependent spontaneous polarization of the pyroelectric films. Moreover, finite-element simulations reveal the possibility of reaching a 25 ps full width at half maximum and 6 ps rise time rivalling that of semiconductor photodiodes8. This design approach has the potential to realize large-area, inexpensive gigahertz pyroelectric detectors for wavelength-specific detection from the ultraviolet to short-wave infrared or beyond for, for example, high-speed hyperspectral imaging.
Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), which possesses unique layered nanostructure and high theoretical capacity, is curcomprehensiverently under research as one of the most promising lithium-ion anode materials. However, MoO3 suffers from sluggish electrode reaction kinetics and huge volume expansion, causing severe capacity fading during cycling processes. Herein, ultrafine MoO3anchored in coal-based carbon fiber to form nanocomposites (MoO3/CCNFs) was prepared by electrospinning. The unique structure of the ultrafine MoO3 nanoparticles (1–3 nm) homogeneously embedded in coal-based carbon nanofibers showed advantages of short Li+diffusion distance, fast reaction kinetics and reduced volume expansion. The specific surface area and pore volume of MoO3/CCNFs were increased induced by small molecular gas released during carbonization of the coal, which can supply more beneficial transport routes for electrolyte ions and relieve volume stress caused by Li+ insertion.
This collection highlights some of the experimental and theoretical work published in Nature Communications on the science and engineering of load-bearing materials. Explore the latest research on high entropy alloys, bulk metallic glasses, grain boundaries, phase transitions, and crystal growth, and processing, defects, and mechanical properties.
Materials science is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the understanding and application of the properties of matter. Materials scientists study the connections between the underlying structure of a material, its properties, its processing methods and its performance in applications.